Factores de riesgo cardiovascular en pacientes con cáncer de mama ¿Existe correlación con las referencias internacionales?

  • Silvia Josefina Ayala León Instituto Nacional del Cáncer
  • Federico Cabral Hospital Nacional. Itauguá
  • Gustavo Escalada Hospital Nacional. Itauguá
  • Luz Cabral Hospital Nacional. Itauguá
  • Miguel Ayala León Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez
  • Cinthia Gauna Instituto Nacional del Cáncer
Palabras clave: neoplasias de la mama, factores de riesgo, enfermedades cardiovasculares, hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus


Introducción: el cáncer y las enfermedades cardiovasculares son dos entidades patológicas separadas. Sin embargo, poseen varias similitudes y posibles interacciones, que incluyen varios factores de riesgo similares.

Objetivo: determinar y correlacionar los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en pacientes con cáncer de mama.

Metodología: estudio longitudinal, prospectivo. Población: pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer de mama que consultan en el Hospital Nacional de Itauguá y en el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, Paraguay, entre marzo y agosto 2017. Se recogieron las variables relacionadas con las características basales de las pacientes y factores de riesgo cardiovascular.

Resultados: se incluyeron 170 pacientes, con edad media 50±13 años. Los factores de riesgo cardiovascular detectados fueron diabetes mellitus 14,7%, hipertensión arterial 51,8%, tabaquismo 3,5%, sedentarismo 38,3%, sobrepeso/obesidad 70%. La mediana de colesterol LDL fue 131,5 mg/dL. El 26,5% tenían con score de Framingham con riesgo elevado y moderado. En la correlación por método de Spearman entre score de riesgo de Framingham y presión arterial diastólica se obtuvo significancia estadística tanto con la presión arterial en brazo (r 0,244, p 0,001) como en miembro inferior (r 0,27, p 0,0001). En la correlación entre IMC y presión arterial diastólica se obtuvo r 0,15 (p 0,03).

Conclusión: se halló correlación estadística entre valores elevados de presión arterial diastólica con obesidad/sobrepeso, así como con riesgo cardiovascular moderado a alto. Se debe considerar la hipertensión arterial diastólica como factor de riesgo cardiovascular en pacientes con cáncer de mama.


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